Colitis is an inflammation or dystrophic-inflammatory lesion of the colon, leading to mucosal atrophy and organ dysfunction. Pathological processes covering the inner surface of the intestine are localized in all departments (pancolitis) or in some areas (segmental colitis).
In colitis (inflammation of the intestines), the symptoms are characterized by the presence of blood, mucus in the stool, abdominal pain, nausea, and false urge to defecate. In most cases, its chronic form develops, as well as ulcerative colitis of the intestines of unknown etiology, while the intestinal mucosa becomes prone to ulceration.
Why does intestinal colitis develop, and what is it? Acute colitis in adults often occurs simultaneously with inflammation of the small intestines and the stomach. The most common pathogens of acute colitis are pathogens.
Chronic colitis can develop in the presence of foci of infection in the gallbladder, pancreas and other organs anatomically connected with the intestines, as well as with prolonged monotonous feeding, systematic consumption of large amounts of hard-to-digest food, abuse of spicy food, and alcohol.
Risk factors that cause intestinal colitis in adults:
- Infection (dysentery, salmonellosis, tuberculosis, chronic infections, giardiasis, amebiasis, helminthiasis).
- Medicines (long-term use of antibiotics, laxatives, drugs in the form of suppositories, frequent enemas).
- Food or chemical poisoning. The penetration into the blood of components that kill the beneficial intestinal microflora.
- Stress, violation of the daily routine.
- The action of toxic substances (salts of heavy metals, mercury, lead, arsenic, etc.).
- Circulatory disorders. It is also a good reason for the development of manifestations of colitis, because as a result of a blood deficiency the body is often unable to overcome the irritant on its own and get rid of harmful components.
- The alimentary factor (the use of coarse, insufficiently thermally processed food, irregular and inadequate food, food, "dry rations", insufficient intake of dietary fiber, frequent use of spicy, salty, smoked, fatty foods, alcohol).
Exacerbation of colitis is most often caused by: eating foods that irritate the large intestine or cause allergic reactions (marinades, canned foods, citrus fruits, cabbage, cucumbers, etc.), overwork, emotional overload, overheating, taking large doses of antibacterial drugs.
By etiology distinguish colitis:
- Ulcerative disease is a disease with unclear etiology, in the development mechanism of which heredity, autoimmune mechanisms and infection play a role.
- Infectious - caused by pathogenic microflora, which may be specific (for example, dysenteric colitis), banal (streptococcus, staphylococcus) and conditionally pathogenic (for example, E. coli);
- Ischemic - with occlusive lesions of the branches of the abdominal aorta (for example, with atherosclerosis) supplying the large intestine;
- Toxic or medicinal in case of poisoning with certain poisons or drugs (for example, NSAIDs);
- Radiation in chronic radiation sickness.
Spastic bowel colitis
Often spastic bowel colitis is triggered by an unhealthy lifestyle, as well as mistakes made in the diet. Doctors such a disease in many cases is called irritable bowel syndrome, during which there is an inflammatory phenomenon of a chronic type in the mucous membrane of the colon.
The disease can develop after drinking for a long time coffee, soda, alcohol, poor-quality food, as well as after suffering gastroenteritis.
Ulcerative colitis of intestines
Ulcerative colitis of the intestine is characterized by hemorrhagic-purulent inflammatory process of the large intestine with the development of systemic, local complications. The exact causes and origins of the disease are still unknown.
There are suggestions that the disease may be caused by an unbalanced diet, an unidentified infection, drugs, genetic mutations, shifts in the intestinal flora and stresses.
Symptoms of colitis in adults
In the event of intestinal colitis, the symptoms will depend on the type of disease that is present, but in general, colitis in adults is most often associated with abdominal pain and diarrhea. Other signs of colitis that may or may not be present.
Symptoms of colitis may include:
- Persistent or recurrent abdominal pain and bloating.
- Constant urge to defecate.
- Bloody stools. Diarrhea can sometimes cause hemorrhoids, which can bleed. However, blood during bowel movements is not normal.
- Dehydration. Symptoms of dehydration include dizziness, weakness, decreased urination, dry mouth, on the surface of the eyes and skin.
In some patients, local manifestations are accompanied by weakness, nausea and vomiting; increased fatigue, weight loss. Symptoms persist for several weeks, with treatment disappear. The transition of the disease to the chronic is accompanied by the involvement of ligaments and muscles in the process. In this case, the capillaries expand, ulcers and abscesses are formed. Patients concerned about:
- constipation or diarrhea;
- tenesmus; flatulence;
- sharp smell of feces.
Patients feel satisfactory, worried about indisposition, decreased performance, lack of appetite, feeling of bitterness in the mouth, belching and nausea.
The diagnosis of colitis begins with a thorough history. Since the symptoms are usually abdominal pain and diarrhea, it is important to learn about the onset and duration of these pains and any other complaints or symptoms the patient may have. Since most causes of diarrhea are relatively benign and self-eliminating, questions may be asked to find the causes listed above.
Instrumental diagnostic manipulations include:
- Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. With the help of such studies, catarrhal or atrophic changes can be detected on the intestinal mucosa.
- Scatology. With the help of this fecal analysis, it is possible to assess the state of the metabolic processes and the digestive system. In chronic form of colitis, a lot of mucus is present in the stool. The results of microscopic examination show the presence of leukocytes and erythrocytes.
- Radiography or irrigography. These studies allow to assess the condition of the intestinal mucosa, the localization of the inflammatory process. They also allow you to determine dyskinesia.
The symptoms of the colitis and the clinical picture are very similar to the malignant neoplasms of the large intestine, so a biopsy of suspicious areas of the intestine must be done to determine or exclude the oncological nature of the changes.
How to treat intestinal colitis in adults
When exacerbation of chronic or acute colitis, treatment should be carried out in a hospital in the proctology department, if the infectious nature of colitis is found out, then in specialized departments of infectious diseases hospitals.
When symptoms of intestinal colitis appear, treatment in adults is carried out in a comprehensive manner, prescribing agents that eliminate the cause of the disease and eliminate its consequences. For all types of colitis, regardless of its cause, Pevsner’s diet 4 (a, b, c), intestinal adsorbents, stool-regulating drugs (laxatives (Guttalax) or antidiarrheal (Loperamide)), stimulating regeneration (Methyluracil, etc.), restoring microflora (prebiotics and probiotics), desensitizing and detoxification treatment, vitamins and immunomodulators, mineral waters and exercise therapy.
How to treat intestinal colitis? Etiopathogenetic therapy is aimed at eliminating the causes of the disease. In case of helminthic colitis, antiparasitic drugs are administered, in case of infectious agents, antimicrobial (sulfonamides, antibiotics, etc.), and in ischemic, vascular preparations that improve intestinal blood flow (antiplatelet agents (Pentoxifylline), thrombolysis, spasmolytics, etc.). With proctitis and sigmoiditis, administration of drugs in the form of suppositories is indicated.
Treatment of colitis folk remedies also occurs depending on the type of the disease. The most common herbal therapy, which is based on the intake of chamomile, centaury and sage. One teaspoon of each herb should be brewed in 200 ml of boiling water. Take the need to a tablespoon with an interval of two hours.
About a month after starting the infusion, you can either reduce the dose or increase the interval between doses. What are good herbs for colitis? This infusion can be taken for a long time, if you are concerned about colitis of the intestine, the treatment of which, as a rule, is quite long.
Chronic intestinal colitis: symptoms and treatment
For the chronic form of colitis is characterized by a sluggish course, with episodic exacerbations. Pathological mucosal changes occurring in the large intestine in this form of the disease are the result of a long-lasting inflammatory process. Inflammation affects not only the mucous membrane, but also the ligamentous-muscular system, shortening and narrowing of the intestine occurs at the site of injury.
Common symptoms of chronic colitis can be divided into types depending on the morphological changes:
All of these species have common clinical signs:
- False urges;
- Rumbling in abdomen;
- Constipation, diarrhea;
- Abdominal pain after eating;
- Flatulence (bloating);
- Emotional discomfort;
- Bitterness in the mouth;
- Vomiting, nausea.
These symptoms are formed in all nosological forms of the disease, but their severity and combination individually.
Chronic colitis is one of the few diseases, the basis of which are not medications, but diet and nutrition. Antibacterial drugs and symptomatic agents for the treatment of chronic colitis are used only in the period of exacerbation, under the strict supervision of a physician. And the rest is in your hands.
- During the period of exacerbation for 2 to 5 days, diet 4a is prescribed for the treatment of chronic colitis.
- Next, go to the main in chronic colitis diet number 4b.
- Outside the exacerbation, that is, in the period of remission, diet No. 4c is recommended.
Approximate one-day diet menu for chronic colitis No. 4b, recommended by the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences:
- White bread - 400 g.
- Sugar - 50 g (part of it can be replaced with jam, candy).
Breakfast (7 hours 30 minutes):
- Rice porridge on water (300 g) with the addition of 1/3 of milk with butter (5 g).
- A glass of tea.
Lunch (12 - 13 hours):
- A plate of soup in meat broth with noodles.
- Steam meat cutlets (150 g) with carrot puree (150 g).
- A glass of apple jelly.
Dinner (5 pm - 6 pm):
- Boiled fish (85 g).
- Mashed potatoes (150 g).
- Uncomfortable bun, Russian cheese (25 g).
- A glass of tea.
For the night (20 hours):
- A glass of sour kefir with white bread or a glass of tea with dry biscuits (“School”, biscuits, dried biscuit).
In order to overcome, harmful bacteria must be attributed to antibiotics, and in the presence of dysbiosis, drugs that contain the bacteria necessary for the microflora. It is worth noting that chronic colitis is often accompanied by spasms. That is why, during the treatment period, antispasmodics are prescribed by a specialist. But in case of violation of the stool, the use of adsorbing drugs is necessary.
Quite frequent treatment of this disease can be considered the use of physiotherapeutic procedures. If, for example, an intestinal upset is caused by a nervous breakdown or a strong overstrain, then an additional psychotherapeutic treatment may be prescribed by a specialist.
Ulcerative Colitis Treatment
Ulcerative colitis is more difficult to treat. A more intensive therapy is required, which means a longer and more expensive one. The preparations for the treatment of this type of pathology are not only expensive, but also have a lot of side effects, therefore they are used strictly as prescribed by a specialist.
They are produced in the form of rectal suppositories, enemas, in pill form (Salofalk, Pentasa, Mesavant, Mesacol). In some cases, resort to the use of biological therapy drugs, such as drugs Humir (Adalimumab), Remicade (Infliximab).
In the most severe cases, the use of corticosteroid medicines (Prednisolone, Methylprednisolone, Hydrocortisone) is acceptable. The drugs are available in the form of rectal droppers, suppositories, tablets.