Herpetic tonsillitis or herpes tonsillitis (vesicular, aphthous pharyngitis) is a type of sore throat, which is an acute infectious disease that is quite common among the young population.
Herpes sore throat is caused by the penetration of a Coxsackie Group A virus, a serovar 2-6, 8, 10 virus into the body of a child or an adult, less often an ESNO virus, and Coxackie B group viruses.
More often, children of preschool, primary and secondary school age are ill. Adults in many cases are infected in the family, from children. Herpangina is transmitted by airborne droplets, through dirty hands, toys, baby bottles and nipples, products.
The most difficult disease suffer babies up to three years. In breastfed babies, in the first months of life, herpes simplex tonsillitis is rarely detected.
Why does herpetic sore throat arise and what is it? The causative agent of the disease Coxsackie Virus - is transmitted by airborne droplets, through contaminated food (fruits, vegetables, milk), fecal-oral. Often the incidence increases in the summer.
Getting to the mucous membranes of the nasopharynx, the Coxsackie virus penetrates the intestines and lymph nodes, where it multiplies rapidly. On the third day of illness, a critical amount of viruses are in the blood. This greatly facilitates their access to the nervous and muscular tissue, which determines the overall serious condition of the patient.
Symptoms of herpetic angina
The incubation period is from 2 to 10 days (usually 3 - 4 days). The disease always begins acutely and rapidly, with the following symptoms:
- increase in body temperature (sometimes up to 40 - 41 ° C);
- changes in the mucous membrane of the oropharynx;
- pain when swallowing.
In adults, a distinctive symptom of herpetic sore throat is the appearance on the back of the pharynx, tonsils, soft palate, uvula, anterior part of the mouth cavity of small reddish bubbles with serous (light, not turbid) content resembling herpetic lesions.
Over time, the specks form ulcers, which gives the patient great inconvenience because they are sore. Then the ulcers develop into vesicles that have serous filling. They burst and form ulcerations. As a rule, they number from 5 to 20 pieces. In some cases, the bubbles can merge, which leads to fairly large lesions on the mucous throat and mouth.
Symptoms of herpetic angina in children
It is very important that the specialist inspected the child, since the symptoms on the first day of the illness are very similar to the flu. These include:
- runny nose;
- weakness, severe malaise;
- loss of appetite;
- very high temperature.
Local manifestation of herpes sore throat is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Redness of the mucous membranes of the anatomical formations of the oral cavity during the day (tonsils, palatines, soft palate and uvula).
- The appearance of papules on the oral mucosa, 24 hours after redness.
- In the future, the formation of bubbles (within 48 hours), which after opening leave aphthous ulcers.
- Formation in severe cases of erosive lesions, after the merger of aft.
- Manifestation of lymphadenopathy (in the parotid, submandibular and cervical regions).
- With a long course of characteristic rash observed on the hands and feet.
In the erased form of the disease, only the oropharynx may be affected. In the case of a weakened immunity, herpangina proceeds in waves. Violent symptoms observed with the order of 2-3 days. With a typical course of herpes sore throat in children begins to decline in a week.
What this disease looks like in children and adults, presents for viewing detailed photos:
Before you figure out how to treat a herpetic sore throat, you must correctly diagnose. For this purpose, virological and serological examinations shall be carried out:
- Serological examination involves the use of special sera. They are collected at the beginning of the disease, and then after 2 weeks. The purpose of this analysis is to fix the level of growth of antibody titer.
- Virological examination involves the delivery of pharyngeal swabs. This material is given no later than 3–5 days from the time of the disease.
The most reliable and proven diagnostic method is immunofluorescence, which is based on the detection of fluorochrome antibodies.
The causative agents of the disease, getting into the bloodstream, can quickly spread throughout the body, causing a number of serious consequences:
- meningitis is an inflammatory process in the membranes of the brain and spinal cord;
- encephalitis - inflammation in certain parts of the brain;
- myocarditis is a strong inflammation of the heart muscle.
Therefore, at the first signs of herpetic sore throat should not hesitate to contact a doctor and begin therapeutic measures.
Herpetic Angina Treatment
If a herpetic tonsillitis is diagnosed in an adult, complex treatment includes isolation of the patient, general and local treatment. The patient needs to drink plenty of fluids, ingestion of liquid or semi-liquid foods, excluding irritation of the oral mucosa.
In general, the treatment of herpetic angina in adults is symptomatic:
- At high temperatures, antipyretics are prescribed ("Paracetamol or Ibuprofen").
- The use of antihistamines (Claritin, Fenkrol, Suprastin, Diazolin) has been shown to relieve swelling and reddening of the mucous membranes and facilitate breathing.
- To reduce pain in the mouth, various lozenges and lozenges for sucking ("Faringosept", "Strepsils", "Terasil"), which have an antiseptic and bactericidal effect, take.
- Also a good effect is observed if you irrigate the mouth or nose with local preparations based on interferon, lubricate the throat with ointments Acyclovir, Interferon.
- After the general and local treatment is carried out, it is necessary to provide for the organization of a balanced diet and the inclusion of immunomodulators (imudon, immunal, etc.) in therapy.
- It is unacceptable to use inhalations and compresses, because the heat effect increases blood circulation, which leads to the intensification of viremia (spread of the virus).
- Antibiotics in the treatment of herpangina are useless, because their active ingredients are effective against bacteria, but are powerless against viruses. Therefore, it is important to establish what is the causative agent of infection. Coxsackie and ECHO viruses have a specific morphology, antigenic structure, biochemical properties.
Since the foci of inflammation undergo permanent traumatization, healing takes place for at least two weeks. In order to increase the effectiveness of oral medications and speed up the epithelialization process, procedures such as ultraviolet irradiation of the nasopharynx, helium-neon laser exposure are prescribed.
How to gargle?
Sore throat is well removed by such methods:
- gargling with broths of oak, sage bark;
- pharynx irrigation by Hexoral, Yoks, Tantum Verde, Cameton;
- treatment of the pharynx with Lugol, propolis tincture solution, Chlorfillipt;
- gargling with calendula and eucalyptus tincture;
- resorption of pastilles, tablets with a distracting and enveloping action;
- treatment of the pharynx with a solution of sodium tetraborate on glycerin, liquid Castellani, lidocaine solution 2%.
It is strictly forbidden to carry out inhalations, to make compresses during infections such as herpes tonsillitis. All these agents have an antiseptic, enveloping and analgesic effect.
Treatment of angina in children: Dr. Komarovsky
Herpes sore throat in children is treated at home. A sick child should be isolated from healthy family members. The doctor prescribes antiseptic mouth rinse, plenty of warm drink. To reduce the temperature used antipyretic agents, and to relieve pain in the throat - painkillers. Since the disease is caused by a virus, it is possible to use antiviral therapy during treatment.
For more information about the treatment of angina, you can find out by watching a video with a popular pediatrician Dr. Komarovsky:
A sick child is prescribed bed rest, while it is necessary to moisturize and ventilate the room well, and also to follow a heavy drinking regimen. Another important remedy that helps fight sore throat is regular gargling. It helps to wash away the purulent formations and microbes, to remove the tonsils, to “neutralize” the infection and will lead to a quick recovery.
Prognosis and prevention
For children with herpetic angina, and contact persons, quarantine is set for 14 days. Current and final disinfection is carried out in the epidiquide. In most cases, herpetic sore throat in children ends with recovery. When generalizing a viral infection, multiple organ failure is possible. Fatal outcomes are usually observed among children in their early years with the development of meningitis.